Sara Hitchman

Sara Hitchman, Dr.

Postdoktorierende / Postdoctoral Scholar

Tel.: +41 44 635 20 86

Raumbezeichnung: AND 3.29

s.hitchman@ikmz.uzh.ch

Biographical Note

Sara Hitchman is a postdoctoral researcher in the division of Media Use and Effects at the Department of Communication and Media Research since March 2021. Sara completed her MASc in Applied Psychology in 2008, and her PhD in Psychology in 2012 at the University of Waterloo.

Her research interests include global tobacco control policy, packaging and health warnings labels on tobacco and related products, advertising of tobacco and related products, and health communication. Her current work is on Covid-19 preventive behaviours, specifically the Covid-Norms project, https://covid-norms.ch/en/.

Sara’s past research and policy projects have been funded by CIHR (Canada), NIH (US), NIHR(UK), EU Horizon 2020, Cancer Research UK, and the British Heart Foundation.

Current Functions

Postdoctoral Researcher on the project Covid-Norms: Monitoring and Analyzing Preventive Behavior, funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation https://covid-norms.ch/en/

Associate Editor, Addiction Journal, https://www.addictionjournal.org/

Visiting Senior Lecturer, Department of Addictions, King’s College London, UK, https://www.kcl.ac.uk/academic-psychiatry/about/departments/addictions

Curriculum Vitae

2021- Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich

2020-2021                    

Senior Lecturer, Department of Addictions, King’s College London, UK

2013-2020

Lecturer, Department of Addictions, King’s College London, UK

2012-2013 Research Associate, International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, University of Waterloo, Canada

2013

Independent Consultant, World Heart Federation, Geneva, Switzerland

2012

Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, San Francisco, United States

2006-2012

Graduate Research Assistant, International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, University of Waterloo, Canada

2008

Intern, Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

2007-2009 Teaching Assistant, Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Canada
2006 Junior Marketing Consultant, Mallot Creek Strategies, Fergus, Canada

Teaching and Research Interests

  • Global tobacco control policy, specifically the use of quasi-experimental design to evaluate policy impact.
  • The impact of health warnings labels, product packaging design, and public health campaigns on the appeal and harm perceptions of tobacco and related products.
  • Health communication

Publications

Policy Reports

  1. Stead M, Hitchman SC, Angus K, Aleyan S, Ford A, MacKintosh AM, Purves R, Mitchell D, Hammond D, Fong GT, Driezen P, Reid J, Craig L, Chung-Hall J, Cummings KM, Thrasher JF, Jin Cho Y, Cowell C, Coker T, Bullock S, Vohra J & Froguel A (2021). E-cigarette marketing in the UK: evidence from adult and youth surveys and policy compliance studies. Cancer Research UK. London. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/e-cigarette_marketing_in_the_uk_fullreport_march_2021.pdf

  2. International Tobacco Control Project and British Heart Foundation (2020). Standardised Packaging for Tobacco Products in England: Evidence of Policy Impact from the International Tobacco Control Project. Available here: https://itcproject.org/findings/reports/standardised-packaging-tobacco-products-england-evidence-policy-impact-international-tobacco-control-policy-evaluation-project-feb-2020/
  3. Action on Smoking and Health (2016). Counter Arguments: How important is tobacco to small retailers? October 2016 (Launched at UK Parliament, Westminster – 18 October 2016). Available here: https://ash.org.uk/information-and-resources/reports-submissions/reports/counter-arguments-how-important-is-tobacco-to-small-retailers/
  4. Calder C, Hitchman SC, Rooke C, & McNeill A (2015). Closing the doors on tobacco promotion: An assessment of small retailer preparations for tobacco point of sale display removal and longer-term tobacco disinvestment, Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/policy_march2015_pos_report.pdf
  5. International Tobacco Control Project and British Heart Foundation (2014). Standardised Packaging for Tobacco Products: Recent Evidence from Australia and United Kingdom. https://itcproject.org/findings/reports/standardised-packaging-for-tobacco-products-itc-project-british-heart-foundation-report-december-2014/
  6. International Tobacco Control Project, World Health Organization, and World Heart Federation (2012). Cardiovascular harms from tobacco use and secondhand smoke: Global gaps in awareness and implications for action. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, and Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/cardiovascular_harms_tobacco_use/en/
  7. Fong GT, & Hitchman SC (2011). Levels of exposure to smoke in cars and the Canadian experience. A submission to the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Smoking and Health (United Kingdom): Inquiry into smoking in private vehicles. Not available online.
  8. Saltman D, Hitchman SC, Sendzik T, Fong GT (2010) Prevention: The Current Status of Bans on Smoking in Vehicles Carrying Children: A Canadian Perspective. Cancer Advocacy Coalition of Canada: Report Card on Cancer, 2009-2010. Not available online

Research Publications

  1. Moodie C, Best C, Critchlow N, Stead M, McNeill A, Hitchman S. The impact of including cessation resource information on health warnings on standardised tobacco packaging on awareness and use: A longitudinal online survey in the United Kingdom. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2020 Nov 30; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa251
  2. East K, McNeill A, Thrasher JF, Hitchman SC. Social norms as a predictor of smoking uptake among youth: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of prospective cohort studies. Addiction [Internet]. 2021 Feb 4;(add.15427). Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.15427
  3. Nogueira SO, Driezen P, Fu M, Hitchman SC, Tigova O, Castellano Y, Kyriakos CN, Zatoński MZ, Mons U, Quah ACK, Demjén T, Trofor AC, Przewozniak K, Katsaounou P, Fong G, Vardavas CI, Fernández E, EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Beyond the European Union Tobacco Products Directive: smokers’ and recent quitters' support for further tobacco control measures (2016-2018). Tob Control [Internet]. 2021 Mar 16;tobaccocontrol – 2020–056177. Available from: https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056177
  4. Felicione NJ, Fix BV, McNeill A, Cummings KM, Goniewicz ML, Hammond D, Borland R, Heckman BW, Bansal-Travers M, Gravely S, Hitchman SC, Levy DT, Fong GT, O’Connor R. Characteristics and changes over time of nicotine vaping products used by vapers in the 2016 and 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys. Tob Control [Internet]. 2021 Mar 22; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056239
  5. Moodie C, Best C, Lund I, Scheffels J, Critchlow N, Stead M, McNeill A, Hitchman S, Mackintosh AM. The response of smokers to health warnings on packs in the United Kingdom and Norway following the introduction of standardised packaging. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2021 Feb 18; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntab027
  6. Driezen P, Fong GT, Hyland A, Craig LV, Sansone G, Hitchman SC, Cummings KM. Self-Reported Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Support for Complete Smoking Bans in Multiunit Housing Among Smokers in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Prev Chronic Dis [Internet]. 2020 Nov 25;17:E147. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.200201
  7. Taylor EV, East KA, McNeill A, Cummings M, Thrasher J, Fong GT, Quah ACK, McDermot M, Li G, Borland R, Hammond D, Aleyan S, Hitchman SC. Changes in responses to nicotine vaping product warnings and leaflets in England compared with Canada, the US and Australia: findings from the 2016-2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys. Tob Control [Internet]. 2020 Oct 28; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055739
  8. Aleyan S, Ferro MA, Hitchman SC, Leatherdale ST. Does having one or more smoking friends mediate the transition from e-cigarette use to cigarette smoking: a longitudinal study of Canadian youth. Cancer Causes Control [Internet]. 2020 Oct 27; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01358-1
  9. Yimsaard P, McNeill A, Yong H-H, Cummings KM, Chung-Hall J, Hawkins SS, Quah ACK, Fong GT, O’Connor RJ, Hitchman SC. Gender differences in reasons for using electronic cigarettes and product characteristics: Findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2020 Sep 30; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa196
  10. Miller CR, Sutanto E, Smith DM, Hitchman SC, Gravely S, Yong HH, Borland R, O’Connor RJ, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Hyland A, Quah ACK, Goniewicz ML. Awareness, trial and use of heated tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users: findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Tob Control [Internet]. 2020 Sep 29; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055985
  11. Gravely S, Meng G, Cummings KM, Hyland A, Borland R, Hammond D, O’Connor RJ, Goniewicz ML, Kasza KA, McNeill A, Thompson ME, Hitchman SC, Levy DT, Thrasher JF, Quah ACK, Martin N, Ouimet J, Boudreau C, Fong GT. Changes in Smoking and Vaping over 18 Months among Smokers and Recent Ex-Smokers: Longitudinal Findings from the 2016 and 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Sep 27;17(19). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197084
  12. Callaghan L, Yong H-H, Borland R, Cummings KM, Hitchman SC, Fong GT. What kind of smoking identity following quitting would elevate smokers relapse risk? Addict Behav [Internet]. 2021 Jan;112:106654. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106654
  13. Moodie C, Best C, Critchlow N, Stead M, Hitchman SC, McNeill A. Increased support for standardised packaging in the UK: a longitudinal online survey. Tob Control [Internet]. 2020 Sep 23; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055911
  14. Chung-Hall J, Fong GT, Meng G, Craig LV, McNeill A, Hitchman SC, Fernández E, Mons U, Trofor AC, Przewoźniak K, Zatoński WA, Demjén T, Katsaounou PA, Kyriakos CN, Vardavas CI, EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Support for e-cigarette policies among smokers in seven European countries: longitudinal findings from the 2016-18 EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1;30(Supplement_3):iii68–77. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa085
  15. Kahnert S, Driezen P, Balmford J, Kyriakos CN, Aleyan S, Hitchman SC, Nogueira S, Demjén T, Fernández E, Katsaounou PA, Trofor AC, Przewoźniak K, Zatoński WA, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, Mons U, EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Effectiveness of tobacco warning labels before and after implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive-findings from the longitudinal EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe surveys. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1;30(Supplement_3):iii84–90. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa039
  16. Kyriakos CN, Driezen P, Girvalaki C, Hitchman SC, Filippidis FT, Gravely S, Balmford J, Nikitara K, Mons U, Fernández E, Przewoźniak K, Trofor AC, Demjén T, Zatoński W, Tountas Y, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Awareness and correlates of noticing changes to cigarette packaging design after implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1;30(Supplement_3):iii98–107. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa057
  17. McDermott MS, East KA, Hitchman SC, McNeill A, Tountas Y, Demjén T, Fernández E, Mons U, Trofor AC, Herbeć A, Janik-Koncewicz K, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Social norms for e-cigarettes and smoking: associations with initiation of e-cigarette use, intentions to quit smoking and quit attempts: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1;30(Supplement_3):iii46–54. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa014
  18. Hawkins SS, Chung-Hall J, Craig L, Fong GT, Borland R, Cummings MK, Levy D, Hitchman SC. Support for minimum legal sales age laws set to age 21 across Australia, Canada, England, and US: Findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 Jul 1;ntaa119. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa119
  19. Jackson SE, Proudfoot H, Brown J, East K, Hitchman SC, Shahab L. Perceived Non-Smoking Norms and Motivation to Stop Smoking, Quit Attempts, and Cessation: A Cross-Sectional Study in England. Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 10487,
  20. Cheng KW, Shang C, Myung Lee H, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT, Borland R, Heckman BW, Hitchman SC, O’Connor RJ, Levey DT, Cummings MK. Costs of vaping: evidence from ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Tob Control, epub ahead of print, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055344
  21. Aleyan S, Hitchman SC, Ferro MA, Leatherdale ST. Trends and predictors of exclusive e-cigarette use, exclusive smoking and dual use among  youth in Canada. Addict Behav. 2020, Epub 2020 May 21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106481
  22. Tompkins CNE, Burnley A, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. Factors that influence smokers’ and ex-smokers' use of IQOS: a qualitative study of IQOS users and ex-users in the UK. Tob Control [Internet]. 2020 Jan 15; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055306
  23. East KA, Hitchman SC, McNeill A, Ferguson SG, Yong H-H, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Borland R. Trends in social norms towards smoking between 2002 and 2015 among daily smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC 4C). Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2019 Sep 18; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz179
  24. East KA, Hitchman SC, McNeill A, Thrasher JF, Hammond D. Social norms towards smoking and vaping and associations with product use among youth in England, Canada, and the US. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 2019 Dec 1;205:107635. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107635
  25. Hiscock R, Branston JR, Partos TR, McNeill A, Hitchman SC, Gilmore AB. UK tobacco price increases: driven by industry or public health? Tob Control [Internet]. 2019 Jul 25; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-054969
  26. Moodie C, MacKintosh AM, Thrasher JF, McNeill A, Hitchman S. Use of Cigarettes With Flavor-Changing Capsules Among Smokers in the United Kingdom: An Online Survey. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2019 Oct 26;21(11):1547–55. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nty173
  27. Aleyan S, Driezen P, McNeill A, McDermott M, Kahnert S, Kyriakos CN, Mons U, Fernández E, Trofor AC, Zatoński M, Demjén T, Katsaounou PA, Przewoźniak K, Balmford J, Filippidis FT, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, Hitchman SC, EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Evaluating the impact of introducing standardized packaging with larger health-warning labels in England: findings from adult smokers within the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1;30(Supplement_3):iii91–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa053
  28. Nikitara K, Girvalaki C, Kyriakos CN, Driezen P, Filippidis FT, Kahnert S, Hitchman SC, Mons U, Fernández E, Trofor AC, Przewoźniak K, Demjén T, Katsaounou PA, Zatoński W, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Changes in electronic cigarette use and label awareness among smokers before and after the European Tobacco Products Directive implementation in six European countries: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1;30(Supplement_3):iii62–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa081
  29. Nahhas GJ, Braak D, Cummings KM, Heckman BW, Alberg AJ, Yong H-H, Fong GT, Boudreau C, Hitchman SC, McNeill A. Rules about smoking and vaping in the home: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:107–14. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14579
  30. O’Connor RJ, Fix BV, McNeill A, Goniewicz ML, Bansal-Travers M, Heckman BW, Cummings KM, Hitchman S, Borland R, Hammond D, Levy D, Gravely S, Fong GT. Characteristics of nicotine vaping products used by participants in the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:15–23. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14571
  31. McNeill A, Driezen P, Hitchman SC, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Borland R. Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:49–60. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14722
  32. Yong H-H, Borland R, Cummings KM, Gravely S, Thrasher JF, McNeill A, Hitchman S, Greenhalgh E, Thompson ME, Fong GT. Reasons for regular vaping and for its discontinuation among smokers and recent ex-smokers: findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:35–48. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14593
  33. Gravely S, Thrasher JF, Cummings KM, Ouimet J, McNeill A, Meng G, Lindblom EN, Loewen R, O’Connor RJ, Thompson ME, Hitchman SC, Hammond D, Heckman BW, Borland R, Yong H-H, Elton-Marshall T, Bansal-Travers M, Gartner C, Fong GT. Discussions between health professionals and smokers about nicotine vaping products: results from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:71–85. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14527
  34. Aleyan S, East K, McNeill A, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Yong H-H, Thrasher JF, Borland R, Hitchman SC. Differences in norms towards the use of nicotine vaping products among adult smokers, former smokers and nicotine vaping product users: cross-sectional findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:97–106. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14648
  35. McDermott MS, Li G, McNeill A, Hammond D, Thrasher JF, O’Connor RJ, Cummings KM, Borland R, Fong GT, Hitchman SC. Exposure to and perceptions of health warning labels on nicotine vaping products: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:134–43. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14550
  36. Heckman BW, Fong GT, Borland R, Hitchman S, O’Connor RJ, Bickel WK, Stein JS, Yong H-H, Nahhas GJ, Pope DA, Shang C, Cheng K-W, Levy DT, Cummings KM. The impact of vaping and regulatory environment on cigarette demand: behavioral economic perspective across four countries. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:123–33. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14538
  37. Thompson ME, Fong GT, Boudreau C, Driezen P, Li G, Gravely S, Cummings KM, Heckman BW, O’Connor R, Thrasher JF, Nahhas G, Borland R, Yong H-H, McNeill A, Hitchman SC, Quah ACK. Methods of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, wave 1 (2016). Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Oct;114 Suppl 1:6–14. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14528
  38. Cho YJ, Thrasher JF, Reid JL, Hitchman S, Hammond D. Youth self-reported exposure to and perceptions of vaping advertisements: Findings from the 2017 International Tobacco Control Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey. Prev Med [Internet]. 2019 Sep;126:105775. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105775
  39. Hammond D, Reid JL, Rynard VL, Fong GT, Cummings KM, McNeill A, Hitchman S, Thrasher JF, Goniewicz ML, Bansal-Travers M, O’Connor R, Levy D, Borland R, White CM. Prevalence of vaping and smoking among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States: repeat national cross sectional surveys. BMJ [Internet]. 2019 Jun 20;365:l2219. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l2219
  40. Gravely S, Driezen P, Ouimet J, Quah ACK, Cummings KM, Thompson ME, Boudreau C, Hammond D, McNeill A, Borland R, Thrasher JF, Edwards R, Omar M, Hitchman SC, Yong H-H, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Willemsen MC, Bianco E, Boado M, Goma FM, Seo HG, Nargis N, Jiang Y, Perez CDA, Fong GT. Prevalence of awareness, ever-use and current use of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) among adult current smokers and ex-smokers in 14 countries with differing regulations on sales and marketing of NVPs: cross-sectional findings from the ITC Project. Addiction [Internet]. 2019 Jun;114(6):1060–73. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14558
  41. Cho YJ, Thrasher J, Cummings M, Yong HH, Hitchman SC, McNeill A, Fong GT, Hammond D, Hardin J, Li L, Lindblom EN. Cross-country comparison of cigarette and vaping product marketing exposure and use: findings from 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Tob Control [Internet]. 2019 May 31; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054650
  42. Chyderiotis S, Beck F, Andler R, Hitchman SC, Benmarhnia T. How to reduce biases coming from a before and after design: the impact of the 2007-08 French smoking ban policy. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2019 Apr 1;29(2):372–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cky160
  43. Nogueira SO, McNeill A, Fu M, Kyriakos CN, Mons U, Fernández E, Zatoński WA, Trofor AC, Demjén T, Tountas Y, Przewoźniak K, Quah ACK, Fong GT, Hitchman SC, Vardavas CI, EUREST-PLUS consortium. Impact of anti-smoking advertising on health-risk knowledge and quit attempts across 6 European countries from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Survey. Tob Induc Dis [Internet]. 2018 Dec 17;16:A5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/96251
  44. East K, Brose LS, McNeill A, Cheeseman H, Arnott D, Hitchman SC. Harm perceptions of electronic cigarettes and nicotine: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of young people in Great Britain. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 2018 Nov 1;192:257–63. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.08.016
  45. Kyriakos CN, Filippidis FT, Hitchman S, Girvalaki C, Tzavara C, Demjén T, Fernandez E, Mons U, Trofor A, Tountas Y, Zatoński M, Zatoński WA, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, EUREST-PLUS consortium. Characteristics and correlates of electronic cigarette product attributes and undesirable events during e-cigarette use in six countries of the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Tob Induc Dis [Internet]. 2018 Aug 5;16:A1. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/93545
  46. Wadsworth E, McNeill A, Li L, Hammond D, Thrasher JF, Yong H-H, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Hitchman SC. Reported exposure to E-cigarette advertising and promotion in different regulatory environments: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country (ITC-4C) Survey. Prev Med [Internet]. 2018 Jul;112:130–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.04.022
  47. Partos TR, Gilmore AB, Hitchman SC, Hiscock R, Branston JR, McNeill A. Availability and Use of Cheap Tobacco in the United Kingdom 2002-2014: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Project. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2018 May 3;20(6):714–24. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx108
  48. El-Toukhy S, Choi K, Hitchman SC, Bansal-Travers M, Thrasher JF, Yong H-H, O’Connor RJ, Shang C. Banning tobacco price promotions, smoking-related beliefs and behaviour: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country (ITC 4C) Survey. Tob Control [Internet]. 2018 May;27(3):310–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053648
  49. East K, Hitchman SC, Bakolis I, Williams S, Cheeseman H, Arnott D, McNeill A. The Association Between Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Use in a Cohort of Young People. J Adolesc Health [Internet]. 2018 May;62(5):539–47. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.11.301
  50. Pearson JL, Hitchman SC, Brose LS, Bauld L, Glasser AM, Villanti AC, McNeill A, Abrams DB, Cohen JE. Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys. Tob Control [Internet]. 2018 May;27(3):341–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053541
  51. Lee C, Yong H-H, Borland R, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. Acceptance and patterns of personal vaporizer use in Australia and the United Kingdom: Results from the International Tobacco Control survey. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 2018 Apr 1;185:142–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.12.018
  52. Ma BH, Yong H-H, Borland R, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping. Drug Alcohol Rev [Internet]. 2018 Feb;37(2):216–25. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12574
  53. East KA, Hitchman SC, McDermott M, McNeill A, Herbeć A, Tountas Y, Bécuwe N, Demjén T, Fu M, Fernández E, Mons U, Trofor AC, Zatoński WA, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, EUREST-PLUS consortium. Social norms towards smoking and electronic cigarettes among adult smokers in seven European Countries: Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. Tob Induc Dis [Internet]. 2018;16:A15. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/104417
  54. Yong H-H, Hitchman SC, Cummings KM, Borland R, Gravely SML, McNeill A, Fong GT. Does the Regulatory Environment for E-Cigarettes Influence the Effectiveness of E-Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation?: Longitudinal Findings From the ITC Four Country Survey. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2017 Nov 1;19(11):1268–76. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx056
  55. Hiscock R, Branston JR, McNeill A, Hitchman SC, Partos TR, Gilmore AB. Tobacco industry strategies undermine government tax policy: evidence from commercial data. Tob Control [Internet]. 2017 Oct 9; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053891
  56. Hitchman SC, Pearson JL, Villanti AC. The need for more nuance in headline adult cigarette smoking prevalence estimates. Addiction [Internet]. 2017 Aug;112(8):1327–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.13794
  57. Li Z, Elton-Marshall T, Fong GT, Quah ACK, Feng G, Jiang Y, Hitchman SC. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC) China survey. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2017 May 19;17(1):476. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4397-2
  58. McNeill A, Gravely S, Hitchman SC, Bauld L, Hammond D, Hartmann-Boyce J. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2017 Apr 27;4:CD011244. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011244.pub2
  59. Kuipers MAG, Beard E, Hitchman SC, Brown J, Stronks K, Kunst AE, McNeill A, West R. Impact on smoking of England’s 2012 partial tobacco point of sale display ban: a repeated cross-sectional national study. Tob Control [Internet]. 2017 Mar;26(2):141–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052724
  60. Brose LS, Partos TR, Hitchman SC, McNeill A. Support for e-cigarette policies: a survey of smokers and ex-smokers in Great Britain. Tob Control [Internet]. 2017 Mar;26(e1):e7–15. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-052987
  61. East K, Hitchman SC, Stead M, MacKintosh AM, McNeill A. The development of tools to measure norms towards smoking, nicotine use, and the tobacco industry [Internet]. Public Health Research Consortium; 2017 Feb. Available from: http://phrc.lshtm.ac.uk/papers/PHRC_013_Final_Report.pdf
  62. Yong H-H, Borland R, Balmford J, Hitchman SC, Cummings KM, Driezen P, Thompson ME. Prevalence and Correlates of the Belief That Electronic Cigarettes are a Lot Less Harmful Than Conventional Cigarettes Under the Different Regulatory Environments of Australia and the United Kingdom. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2017 Feb;19(2):258–63. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw137
  63. Yong H-H, Borland R, Hitchman SC, Cummings KM, Gravely SML, McNeill A, Fong GT. Response to Letter to the Editor by Benmarhnia T, Leas E, Hendrickson E, Trinidad D, Strong D, Pierce J. The Potential Influence of Regulatory Environment for e-cigarettes on the Effectiveness of e-cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: Different Reasons to Temper the Conclusions From Inadequate Data. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2017;20(5):660–1. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article-abstract/20/5/660/3861019
  64. Wadsworth E, Neale J, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2016 Jun 30;13(7). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070661
  65. Nagelhout GE, Willemsen MC, de Vries H, Mons U, Hitchman SC, Kunst AE, Guignard R, Siahpush M, Yong H-H, van den Putte B, Fong GT, Thrasher JF. Educational differences in the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels on smokers: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys. Tob Control [Internet]. 2016 May;25(3):325–32. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051971
  66. Hitchman SC, Calder R, Rooke C, McNeill A. Small Retailers’ Tobacco Sales and Profit Margins in Two Disadvantaged Areas of England. AIMS Public Health [Internet]. 2016 Mar 14;3(1):110–5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2016.1.110
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  69. Hitchman SC, Brose LS, Brown J, Robson D, McNeill A. Associations Between E-Cigarette Type, Frequency of Use, and Quitting Smoking: Findings From a Longitudinal Online Panel Survey in Great Britain. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2015 Oct;17(10):1187–94. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv078
  70. Yong H-H, Borland R, Balmford J, McNeill A, Hitchman S, Driezen P, Thompson ME, Fong GT, Cummings KM. Trends in E-Cigarette Awareness, Trial, and Use Under the Different Regulatory Environments of Australia and the United Kingdom. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2015 Oct;17(10):1203–11. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntu231
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  72. McNeill A, Brose LS, Calder R, Hitchman SC, Hajek P, McRobbie H. Ann McNeill and colleagues reply to Martin McKee and Simon Capewell. BMJ [Internet]. 2015 Sep 24;351:h5010. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h5010
  73. Dobbie F, Hitchman S, McNeill A, Bauld L. International Tobacco Control. Current Addiction Reports [Internet]. 2015 Mar 1;2(1):1–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-015-0047-x
  74. Li L, Borland R, Yong H, Cummings KM, Thrasher JF, Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Hammond D, Bansal-Travers M. Longer term impact of cigarette package warnings in Australia compared with the United Kingdom and Canada. Health Educ Res [Internet]. 2015 Feb;30(1):67–80. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/cyu074
  75. McNeill A, Brose LS, Calder R, Hitchman SC. E-cigarettes: an evidence update, A report commissioned by Public Health England [Internet]. Public Health England. 2015 [cited 2016 Nov 3]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/457102/Ecigarettes_an_evidence_update_A_report_commissioned_by_Public_Health_England_FINAL.pdf
  76. Brose LS, Hitchman SC, Brown J, West R, McNeill A. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up. Addiction [Internet]. 2015;110(7):1160–8. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.12917
  77. Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, Laux FL. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Psychol Addict Behav [Internet]. 2014 Dec;28(4):1144–52. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036483
  78. Gravely S, Fong GT, Cummings KM, Yan M, Quah ACK, Borland R, Yong H-H, Hitchman SC, McNeill A, Hammond D, Thrasher JF, Willemsen MC, Seo HG, Jiang Y, Cavalcante T, Perez C, Omar M, Hummel K. Awareness, trial, and current use of electronic cigarettes in 10 countries: Findings from the ITC project. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2014 Nov 13;11(11):11691–704. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111111691
  79. Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, Chung-Hall J, Siahpush M. Socioeconomic status and smokers’ number of smoking friends: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 2014 Oct 1;143:158–66. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.07.019
  80. Hitchman SC, Driezen P, Logel C, Hammond D, Fong GT. Changes in effectiveness of cigarette health warnings over time in Canada and the United States, 2002-2011. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2014 May;16(5):536–43. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntt196
  81. McNeill A, Brose LS, Hitchman SC. Commentary on Zacher et al. (2014): Emerging behavioural impact of packaging changes in Australia: time for action elsewhere. Addiction [Internet]. 2014 May;109(5):704–5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12538
  82. Hitchman SC, McNeill A, Brose LS. Electronic cigarettes: time for an accurate and evidencebased debate. Addiction [Internet]. 2014; Available from: http://www.academia.edu/download/42712379/Electronic_cigarettes_time_for_an_accura20160215-28372-14xb26g.pdf
  83. Nagelhout GE, Willemsen MC, Gebhardt WA, van den Putte B, Hitchman SC, Crone MR, Fong GT, van der Heiden S, de Vries H. Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Health Place [Internet]. 2012 Nov;18(6):1436–40. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.08.001
  84. Hitchman SC, Mons U, Nagelhout GE, Guignard R, McNeill A, Willemsen MC, Driezen P, Wilquin J-L, Beck F, Du-Roscöat E, Pötschke-Langer M, Hammond D, Fong GT. Effectiveness of the European Union text-only cigarette health warnings: findings from four countries. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2012 Oct;22(5):693–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckr099
  85. Li L, Borland R, Yong H-H, Hitchman SC, Wakefield MA, Kasza KA, Fong GT. The association between exposure to point-of-sale anti-smoking warnings and smokers’ interest in quitting and quit attempts: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Addiction [Internet]. 2012 Feb;107(2):425–33. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03668.x
  86. Hitchman SC, Guignard R, Nagelhout GE, Mons U, Beck F, van den Putte B, Crone M, de Vries H, Hyland A, Fong GT. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2012 Feb;22 Suppl 1:17–22. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckr200
  87. Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Hyland A, Bansal-Travers M. Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey. Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2011 Jun;21(3):360–5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckq097
  88. Abdullah AS, Hitchman SC, Driezen P, Nargis N, Quah ACK, Fong GT. Socioeconomic differences in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi households with children: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2011 Mar;8(3):842–60. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8030842
  89. Hitchman SC, Fong GT. Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios. Bull World Health Organ [Internet]. 2011 Mar 1;89(3):195–202. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.10.079905
  90. Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Borland R, Hyland A. Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2010 Apr;12(4):374–80. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntq008
  91. Fong GT, Hammond D, Hitchman SC. The impact of pictures on the effectiveness of tobacco warnings. Bull World Health Organ [Internet]. 2009 Aug;87(8):640–3. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/blt.09.069575